As another step towards tightening up the Linux kernel security, Intel's Kristen Carlson Accardi has proposed "FGKASLR" as a significant step forward for better enhancing theKernel Address Space Layout Randomization.
The Linux kernel has employed kernel address space layout randomization (KASLR) since 2005 for fending off possible exploits that rely upon jumping to known positions within memory. While KASLR makes memory addresses for the kernel less predictable, attackers could still ultimately determine the base address of the kernel through enough guessing or leaking kernel addresses. But in aiming to make KASLR more effective, Kristen Carlson Accardi has proposed finer grained kernel address space randomization, or FGKASLR for short.
FGKASLR applies function reordering on top of the KASLR base address randomization to make relative addresses within the kernel less predictable. This function reordering is done at boot time and thus adds about an extra second of latency when booting up the system.
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