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If you’ve been keeping up with the latest IT security news, you may have noticed the increase in the number of attacks on network security within Linux systems. Cloud Snooper, EvilGnome, HiddenWasp, QNAPCrypt, GonnaCry, FBOT, and Tycoon have become prime malware variants to be aware of when working.

Linux is considered a highly secure operating system, so these cloud security breaches may leave users concerned about the integrity of the company. In this article, LinuxSecurity.com aims to put these recent Linux attacks into perspective, provide some background on Linux malware, and shed some light on other concerns users might have.

The Modern Linux Threat Landscape in a Nutshell

Despite the heralded safety landscape on Linux operating systems, network security threats, including malware and viruses, have grown to be serious concerns for Linux users. Attacks in network security have targeted Linux, as threat actors hope to obtain a Return on Investment when accessing such systems. As of March 2018, 15,762 new Linux malware variants were developed, which is a notable increase from the 4,706 new variants developed by March 2017.

The evolution of malware research in recent years has offered superior visibility into exploits in cyber security that threaten Linux servers. A vulnerable server of any sort is an open door for data and credential theft, DDoS attacks, cryptocurrency mining, and web traffic redirection. Most significantly, it can be used to host malicious Command and Control (C&C) servers.

Just over a year ago, bringing to conclusion a collaborative three-year effort, security researchers identified various OpenSSH backdoors, including the notorious Linux/Ebury backdoor, which could be used to compromise servers with dangerous malware. Simultaneously, ESET researchers exposed 21 Linux-based malware families, 12 of which were previously undocumented. In a sense, these findings confirmed an evolving, increasingly dangerous array of data and network security threats, putting Linux users and their systems at risk.

A Brief History of Linux Malware

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The increasing prevalence of Linux malware in recent years arguably creates the illusion of a new network security threat targeting Linux systems; unfortunately, though, Linux malware has been around for quite some time. The first piece of Linux malware, dubbed Stoag, was identified in 1996. Staog was a basic virus that attempted to gain root access by attaching itself to running executables, but it did not spread very successfully and was rapidly patched. 

Stoag made its claim to fame as the first piece of Linux malware, but Bliss, recognized in 1997, was the first Linux malware variant to grab headlines. Similar to Stoag, Bliss was a fairly mild infection that attempted to grab permissions via compromised executables, but it could be deactivated with a simple shell switch, fortunately.

Guardian Digital CEO and LinuxSecurity.com founder Dave Wreski commented on the evolution of Linux malware, “Over the years, malware targeting Linux systems has become both more sophisticated and more common; however, up until fairly recently, Linux malware was still relatively scarce and primitive compared to the variants that threatened proprietary operating systems. As of 2018, there had not yet been a single widespread Linux malware attack or virus comparable to those that frequently target Microsoft Windows - which can be attributed to a lack of root access and rapid updates to the majority of Linux vulnerabilities.” Unfortunately for Linux users, the era of complete data and network security has ended, as the Linux threat landscape has remodeled to become significantly more complex and dangerous to users.

Why Is Linux Malware A Growing Concern for Administrators?

Much to the dismay of Linux system administrators and users, all of 2019 and the start of 2020 were plagued with emerging malware campaigns targeting Linux servers. These attacks in network security demonstrated new and dangerous tactics for spreading, allowing such cloud security breaches to remain undetected prior to compromising servers. Let’s go over the main Linux malware strains that have popularized in the past couple of years.


CloudSnooper uses a unique combination of sophisticated techniques to sneak into Linux and Windows servers so the malware can communicate freely with command and control servers through firewalls. CloudSnooper enables threat actors to work through servers “from the inside out” and is the first example of an attack formula that combines a bypassing technique with a multi-platform payload, targeting both Windows and Linux systems. While each individual element of CloudSnooper’s Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs) has been observed previously, these aspects have not been utilized in combination until now. Experts in cyber security trends predict that this package of TTPs will be used as blueprints for dangerous new firewall attacks that could put data and network security in the line of fire.

In sophisticated exploits in cyber security utilizing CloudSnooper, hackers pawned Amazon Web Services (AWS) servers and set up a rootkit, which enabled the cybercriminals to remotely control servers. Once they did this, the threat actors funneled sensitive data from compromised Windows and Linux machines to Command and Control (C2) servers. Security researcher Willem Mouton describes the attack: “From a technical perspective, it is a thing of beauty, as well as the fact that they made it cross-platform.”


Discovered in July 2019, EvilGnome disguises itself as a Gnome shell extension so it can remain undetected by security software while spying on desktop users. EvilGnome is delivered via a self-extractable archive created using the make self shell script, and the infection is automated with the help of an autorun argument left in the headers of the self-executable payload. When downloaded on a Linux system, the malware is capable of stealing files, taking desktop screenshots, and capturing audio recordings from the user’s microphone so they can be downloaded and utilized in other modules.

EvilGnome attacks have been linked to the Gamaredon Group, a Russian Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) group notorious for developing custom malware variants. Both hacker groups use the same hosting provider and engage with the same C2 domains. Nothing has been confirmed regarding the connection between the groups, but Linux malware experiences have been similar between EvilGnome and Gamaredon Group. Therefore, it is highly likely that these attacks on network security come from the same source.


In early 2019, security researchers discovered a new strain of Linux malware created by Chinese hackers, which could be used to remotely control infected systems. Dubbed HiddenWasp, this sophisticated malware consists of a trojan, a user-mode rootkit, and an initial deployment script. HiddenWasp is deployed as a second-stage payload and is capable of running terminal commands, interacting with the local filesystem, and more. HiddenWasp displays similarities to several other Linux malware families, including Azazel, ChinaZ, and Adore-ng, suggesting that some of its code may have been borrowed. Unlike common Linux malware, HiddenWasp is not focused on DDoS activity or crypto-mining. Instead, it is a trojan used solely for targeted remote control.


This past summer, security researchers identified a rare instance of Linux ransomware targeting Network-Attached Storage (NAS) servers. The malware, which they named QNAPCrypt, is an ARM variant that encrypts all files; however, unlike standard ransomware, the ransom note is delivered solely as a text file without any message on the screen. Each victim is provided with a unique Bitcoin wallet, a tactic that helps conceal the identity of the attackers. Once a system is infected, the ransomware requests a wallet address and a public RSA key from the C2 before file encryption. Fortunately, this is a flaw in QNAPCrypt’s design that enables victims to temporarily block threat actors’ operations to protect further data and network security. Despite this weakness, QNAPCrypt represents the “evolution and adaptation of an attack to bypass security controls.” Unfortunately, it isn’t very common for Linux system administrators to deploy endpoint monitoring to network file servers.


GonnaCry is an emerging Linux ransomware variant under active development in Python and C for research purposes. Lead developer Tarcisio Marinho explains the motivation behind his work: “Since the worldwide spread of the Wannacry ransomware in May 2017 affected so many countries and companies, I kept wondering: Is it really hard to mess with a company’s or a person’s life with a computer? The answer is yes, it’s possible. And ransomware is a computer virus so powerful to do so.” 

GonnaCry begins its work by finding the files it will encrypt. Once it has identified these, the malware starts its encryption routine and creates a desktop file that will help the decryptor access the path, key, and IV used to encrypt each file. The ransomware then frees the memory allocated by the files on the computer. GonnaCry does not rival notorious variants like WannaCry and Petya in complexity, but according to Marinho, “The basic structure is working.”


FBOT is a client variant of the infamous Mirai botnet that targets Linux IoT devices. According to the “Malware Must Die!” blog, FBOT re-emerged on February 9, 2020, after a month of inactivity, offering several technical updates, including advances in its infection method and its increased propagation speed. “Malware Must Die!” reflects on the re-emergence of FBOT and the future of Linux IoT malware: “We are in an era where Linux or IoT malware is getting into better form with advantages. It is important to work together with threat intelligence and knowledge sharing to stop emerging malicious activity before it becomes a big problem for all of us later on.”


Tycoon is an emerging strain of Java-based ransomware that targets both Linux and Windows systems. This dangerous ransomware variant, which was discovered by Blackberry security researchers, uses a little-known file format, making it highly difficult to detect before it detonates its file-encrypting payload. The researchers who discovered Tycoon reported that this was the first time they had seen a ransomware module compiled into a Java image (JIMAGE) file format. JIMAGE files are rarely scanned by anti-malware engines, and malicious JIMAGE files stand a good chance of going undetected as a result. BlackBerry explains in a blog post, “Malware writers are constantly seeking new ways of flying under the radar. They are slowly moving away from conventional obfuscation and shifting towards uncommon programming languages and obscure data formats.”

BlackBerry researchers say that they have recently observed roughly a dozen “highly targeted” Tycoon infections, and the attackers appear to carefully select their victims, favoring small- and medium-sized businesses in the software and education industries. However, as is often the case, the researchers suggest that the actual number of infections is likely much higher.

Knowing the various network security threats taking control of Linux systems is vital in making sure you take care of your server to prevent cyber security vulnerabilities from being exploited.

Tips & Tools for Defending Linux Servers Against Malware

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With attacks in network security targeting Linux servers becoming increasingly common and dangerous, defending against malware and other advanced Linux threats is more critical than ever in maintaining a secure Linux system. Here are some tips and tools to consider when securing your Linux system, all of which can mitigate cyber security vulnerabilities and provide more data and network security:

  • Double-check all cloud configurations, as user misconfiguration and lack of visibility are the top causes of cloud security breaches.
  • Ensure that remote access portals are properly secured. Many network-level attacks are made possible because attackers find their way in through a legitimate, insecure remote access portal by impersonating a trusted source.
  • Create a complete inventory of all devices connected to a network and update all security software used on these devices frequently.
  • Make sure that all external-facing services are fully patched. Be aware that firewall security is not a substitute for an organization’s own cloud security measures, and security patching should be done regularly.
  • Set special rules in your firewall to block control packets specific to Cloud Snooper.
  • Enable multi-factor authentication on all security dashboards or control panels used internally to prevent threat actors from disabling security software in the event of an attack.
  • Review system logs regularly. It’s rare that threat actors are able to take over servers without leaving some trace of their actions, such as log entries showing unexpected or unauthorized kernel drivers being activated. Keep in mind, however, that criminals who already have root powers can tamper with your logging configuration and the logs themselves, making it more difficult to spot malicious activity.
  • Remember that a comprehensive, defense-in-depth approach to security is essential in protecting your system from modern, advanced exploits in cyber security.

How Can I Rapidly and Accurately Identify and Eliminate Linux Malware?

If malware does get downloaded on your system, being able to rapidly and accurately identify and eliminate it is critical to protecting yourself, your users, and your files. Luckily, there are various effective open-source network security toolkits that can be used to detect and remove malware on your system:

  • Linux Malware Detect: Linux Malware Detect is a malware cloud security scanner that can be used to detect malware in shared Linux environments. It utilizes threat data from network edge intrusion detection systems to identify and extract malware that is actively being used in attacks and generates signatures for detection. This tool also derives threat data from user submissions and community resources. 
  • The Rootkit Hunter & Check Rootkit: The Rootkit Hunter (Rkhunter) and Check Rootkit (chkrootkit) are tools that scan local systems, identifying any potentially malicious software, such as malware and viruses that mask their existence on a system.
  • Volatility: Volatility is an open-source memory forensics cloud security framework for incident response and malware analysis.
  • Lynis: Lynis is a command-line application that scans a local or remote system to help an auditor identify potential network security issues.
  • Cuckoo Sandbox: Cuckoo Sandbox is an excellent privacy sandbox for malware analysis. This tool allows you to safely execute possible malware samples, and it provides a comprehensive report on the code executed.
  • Kali Linux: Kali Linux is a Linux distribution used for penetration testing, ethical hacking, and digital forensics. The included security penetration and management tools can be used for network discovery and other research purposes, as well as to identify potential cybersecurity vulnerabilities. Kali Linux includes many of the other network security.

Malware as a Business

The malware market is rapidly expanding and evolving, forcing the security industry to keep pace. The success of this market drives rapid innovation, perpetuating growth and encouraging further malicious activity. Threat actors are crMalwarebusiness Esm W461eating and utilizing increasingly agile and sophisticated malware strains in their attacks on network security, challenging engineers to build stronger defenses against them. Traditional antivirus software is no longer effective in detecting and combating advanced, modern exploits in cyber security. Protecting against today’s sophisticated malware threats requires a comprehensive, defense-in-depth approach to digital security.

According to Verizon, 92.4 percent of malware is delivered via email. Thus, an effective email security strategy is imperative in preventing dangerous and costly infections. Malware is a serious network security threat to all businesses, as an infection can result in significant downtime, recovery costs, and reputation damage. Small businesses face a heightened risk because they often lack the resources and funding necessary to support a full-time IT department. 

Guardian Digital EnGarde Cloud Email Security provides fully managed, multi-layered email protection against malware, phishing, and other persistent email-borne network security threats. Through a transparent, collaborative, open-source approach to software development, Guardian Digital is able to access and provide resources and tools from an innovative global community in a way that no other vendor can. This approach, combined with decades of industry experience and engineering expertise, enables Guardian Digital to offer flexible enterprise-grade solutions to businesses of all sizes at competitive prices.

Key benefits of EnGarde’s protection include:

  • Advanced real-time defenses against social engineering and impersonation attacks 
  • Email encryption and sender authentication protocols detect fake “From” addresses and block them automatically
  • Neutralizes network security threats associated with malicious attachments and links 
  • A scalable cloud-based system simplifies deployment and increases availability
  • Tighter data and network security, adaptive implementation, and eliminated risk of vendor lock-in through the use of a community-powered open-source approach to software development
  • Professional engineering services, as Guardian Digital expert engineers take the time to learn about each client’s key assets, operations, and specific needs 
  • Passionate, knowledgeable, around-the-clock customer support services  

Final Thoughts on Linux Malware

Despite the growing number of data and network security threats targeting Linux systems, there is still solid evidence that Linux is secure by design. There is a vibrant worldwide community that provides strong arguments and seeks to improve security posture by scrutinizing all resources introduced, allowing companies to have more transparency with their open-source code once it is accessible to all operating systems intended. Because of the workers constantly reviewing the source code in Linux kernels, cyber security vulnerabilities are identified and remedied faster than flaws that exist in the opaque source code of proprietary operating systems like Microsoft Windows. Threat actors recognize and exploit such weaknesses, directing the majority of their attacks at proprietary software, platforms, and operating systems. 

According to ESET security researchers, the Operation Windigo botnet, which uses Cdorked web servers to compromise Apache and more, has been detected in 26,000 infections since May 2013. The infamous ZeroAccess Windows-based botnet had infected nearly two million Windows PCs before it was taken down in December 2013.

The digital threat landscape is rapidly evolving to become more advanced and dangerous. While the majority of attacks in network security still victimize proprietary operating systems, threat actors are experimenting with newer targets like Linux. Linux users should undoubtedly be aware of the growing risk that their systems face and recognize that as this new decade unfolds, prioritizing system data and network security and maintenance is more critical than ever.

In many cases, malware attacks can be attributed to administration issues and cyber security vulnerabilities in individual accounts instead of to poor operations. Guardian Digital CEO Dave Wreski states, “Although it may be easy to blame the rise in Linux malware in recent years on security vulnerabilities in the operating system as a whole, this is unfair and largely untrue. The majority of malware exploits on Linux systems can be attributed to misconfigured servers.”

On a broader scale, the rise of Linux malware should serve as a wake-up call for the security industry to allocate more resources to detect these network security threats. As Linux malware continues to become more complex, even more common malware will target Linux frequently and still fly under the radar.