1.Penguin Landscape

Linux has a unique way of securing its kernel code. This is important because it helps prevent hackers from gaining access to the kernel, which is the operating system's core.

The kernel is written in C and assembler languages, which makes it difficult for hackers to access and modify. The only way they can do this would be to exploit a vulnerability in one of the programs running on top of the kernel, such as an application or web server.

However, some vulnerabilities allow attackers to modify the kernel's memory directly from user space—the part of memory used by processes like applications or web servers. These vulnerabilities are known as zero-day exploits because they are unknown until they are used in an attack.

At Open Source Summit Japan, Linux developer Greg Kroah-Hartman recapped kernel security's current state and future challenges. Kroah-Hartman admitted, "There are other groups, kernel security teams, and other projects that are proactive. But that's not what we do. We just react to problems." This is an area where there is room for significant improvement.

Check out the article linked below to learn about other kernel security challenges Kroah-Hartman identified and his advice for robust kernel security. I found it very insightful and wanted to share it with you!