Protecting databases is hardly an easy task, but it is often the attacks that go after the simplest vulnerabilities that are most successful. Enterprises that stick to the basics will generate the most bang for their database security bucks.
According to Alex Rothacker, manager of AppSec's Team SHATTER (Security Heuristics of Application Testing Technology for Enterprise Research), his team has found that are 10 common database vulnerabilities that keep plaguing organizations over and over again.

The common thread in this list is that databases rarely ship security-ready, and their configuration is not a fire-and-forget operation for database administrators. Organizations must continually assess packages to determine if they are really necessary and disable those they don't need to reduce attack surfaces. They need to be vigilant about keeping on the lookout for default or weak log-in credentials. They have to put sound privilege and authentication practices into play. And most important, they need to patch regularly.